'''Marcus Aurelius''' (; ;
[In Classical Latin, Aurelius' name would be inscribed as MARCVS AVRELIVS ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS.]
26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman Emperor
from 161 to 180. He ruled with Lucius Verus
as co-emperor from 161 until Verus' death in 169. Marcus Aurelius was the last of the so-called Nerva–Antonine dynasty#Five Good Emperors|Five Good Emperors
. He was a practitioner of Stoicism
, and his untitled writing, commonly known as the ''Meditations
'', is the most significant source of the modern understanding of ancient Stoic philosophy.
During his reign, the Roman Empire|Empire
defeated a revitalized Parthian Empire
in the East: Aurelius' general Avidius Cassius
sacked the capital Ctesiphon
in 164. In central Europe, Aurelius fought the Marcomanni
, and Sarmatians
with success during the Marcomannic Wars
, although the threat of the Germanic...